MZ-700 – 8253 functions 2

8253 functions

General overview

General

The Intel 8253 is a programmable counter / timer chip designed for use as an Intel microcomputer peripheral. It uses nMOS technology with a single +5V supply and is packaged in a 24-pin plastic DIP.

It is organized as 3 independent 16-bit counters, each with a counter rate up to 2 MHz. All modes of operation are software programmable.

The 82C54 is pin compatible with the HMOS 8254, and is a superset of the 8253.

Six programmable timer modes allow the 82C54 / 8253 to be used as an event counter, elapsed time indicator, programmable one-shot, and in many other applications.

Block diagram

I’ll examine the block diagram and next I’ll explore the internal registers and operating modes of this device. Take note, the timer has three independent, programmable counters and they are all identical.

Block diagram of an 8253 programmable interval timer

The block labeled data bus buffer contains the logic to buffer the data bus to / from the microprocessor, and to the internal registers. The block labeled read / write logic controls the reading and the writing of the counter registers. The final block, the control word register, contains the programmed information that is sent to the device from the microprocessor. In effect this register defines how the 8253 logically works.

Each counter in the block diagram has 3 logical lines connected to it. Two of these lines, clock and gate, are inputs. The third, labeled OUT is an output. The function of these lines changes and depends on how the device is initialized or programmed.

PIN configuration

The following picture shows the pin configuration of the 8253 and a general definition of the lines follows:

Clock This is the clock input for the counter. The counter is 16 bits. The maximum clock frequency is 1 / 380 nanoseconds or 2.6 megahertz. The minimum clock frequency is DC or static operation.

Out This single output line is the signal that is the final programmed output of the device. Actual operation of the out line depends on how the device has been programmed.

Gate This input can act as a gate for the clock input line, or it can act as a start pulse, depending on the programmed mode of the counter.

This table shows the different uses of the 8253 gate input pin.Each mode of operation for the counter has a different use for the GATE input pin.

Signal Status
Low or going low Rising High
Mode
  0
Disables counting
– –
Enables counting
  1
– –
1) Initiates counting
2) Resets output
after next clock
– –
  2
1) Disables counting
2) Sets output
immediately high
1) Reloads counter
2) Initiates counting
Enables counting
  3
1) Disables counting
2) Sets output
immediately high
Initiates counting Enables counting
  4
Disables counting
– –
Enables counting
  5
– –
Initiates counting
– –

Internal 8253 registers

Here is a list of the internal 8253 registers that will program the internal counters of the 8253:

RD WR A0 A1 function
COUNTER 0
1
0
0
0
Load counter 0
0
1
0
0
Read counter 0
COUNTER 1
1
0
0
1
Load counter 1
0
1
0
1
Read counter 1
COUNTER 2
1
0
1
0
Load counter 2
0
1
1
0
Read counter 2
MODE WORD or
CONTROL WORD
1
0
1
1
Write mode word
– –
0
1
1
1
No-operation

Counter #0, #1, #2 Each counter is identical, and each consists of a 16-bit, pre-settable, down counter. Each is fully independent and can be easily read by the CPU. When the counter is read, the data within the counter will not be disturbed. This allows the system or your own program to monitor the counter’s value at any time, without disrupting the overall function of the 8253.

Control Word Register This internal register is used to write information to, prior to using the device. This register is addressed when A0 and A1 inputs are logical 1’s. The data in the register controls the operation mode and the selection of either binary or BCD ( binary coded decimal ) counting format. The register can only be written to. You can’t read information from the register.

Control Word Register

CONTROL BYTE D7 – D0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
SC1
SC0
RL1
RL0
M2
M1
M0
BCP
All of the operating modes for the counters are selected by writing bytes to the control register. This is the control word format.

 

D7
SC1
D6
SC0
Counter Select
0
0
counter 0
0
1
counter 1
1
0
counter 2
1
1
illegal value
Bits D7 and D6 are labeled SC1 and SC0. These bits select the counter to be programmed, it is necessary to define, using the control bits D7 and D6, which counter is being set up.

 Once a counter is set up, it will remain that way until it is changed by another control word.

 

D5
RL1
D4
RL0
R / L Definition
0
0
Counter value is latched. This means
that the selected counter has its
contents transferred into a temporary
latch, which can then be read by the CPU.
0
1
Read / load least-significant byte only.
1
0
Read / load most-significant byte only.
1
1
Read / load least-significant byte first,
then most-significant byte.

Bits D5 and D4 ( RL1 / RL0 ) of the control word shown above are defined as the read / load mode for the register that is selected by bits D7 and D6. Bits D5 and D4 define how the particular counter is to have data read from or written to it by the CPU.

These bits are defined as:

The 1st value, $00, is the counter latch mode. If this mode is specified, the current counter value is latched into an internal register at the time of the I/O write operation to the control register. When a read of the counter occurs, it is this latched value that is read.

Caution: If the latch mode is not used, then it is possible that the data read back may be in the process of changing while the read is occurring. This could result in invalid data being input by the CPU ( see the timing diagrams to the 8253 by intel’s site or go to page “Memory mapped I/O” ). To read the counter value while the counter is still in the process of counting, one must first issue a latch control word, and then issue another control word that indicates the order of the bytes to be read.

An alternative method of obtaining a stable count from the timer is to externally inhibit counting while the register is being read. To this, an external logic to the 8253 controlled by the Z80 to inhibit count during an input read operation is to connect.

Each technique has certain disadvantages. The first, the latching method, may give the CPU a reading that is “old” by several cycles, depending on the speed of the count and which byte of the counter is being read.

The second method, the external inhibiting function, requires additional hardware. In addition, it may change the overall system operation. The counters 1 and 2 of the MZ-700 are not designed with this additional hardware function. 🙁 but the counter 0. You can use this method for your own purposes even an amplifier is connected to the output pin of this counter.
 The input to counter 0 is 1.1088MHz.

The next 3 bits of the control word are D3, D2, and D1. These bits determine the basic mode of operation for the selected counter. The mode descriptions follows:

D3
M2
D2
M1
D1
M0
Mode value
0
0
0
mode 0: interrupt on terminal count
0
0
1
mode 1: programmable one-shot
x
1
0
mode 2: rate generator
x
1
1
mode 3: square wave generator
1
0
0
mode 4: software triggered strobe
1
0
1
mode 5: hardware triggered strobe

 

D0
counts down in
0
binary
1
BCD
The final bit D0 of the control register determines how the register will count:

The maximum values for the count in each count mode are 104 ( 10,000 decimal ) in BCD, and 216 ( 65,536 decimal ) in binary.

Modes

The following text describes all possible modes. The modes used in the MZ-700 and set by the monitor’s startup are mode 0, mode 2, and mode 3.

Mode 0 Interrupt on Terminal CountThe counter will be programmed to an initial value and afterwards counts down at a rate equal to the input clock frequency. When the count is equal to 0, the OUT pin will be a logical 1. The output will stay a logical 1 until the counter is reloaded with a new value or the same value or until a mode word is written to the device.

Once the counter starts counting down, the GATE input can disable the internal counting by setting the GATE to a logical 0 ( see the table above ).

Mode 1 Programmable One-ShotIn mode 1, the device can be setup to give an output pulse that is an integer number of clock pulses. The one-shot is triggered on the rising edge of the GATE input. If the trigger occurs during the pulse output, the 8253 will be retriggered again.
Mode 2 Rate GeneratorThe counter that is programmed for mode 2 becomes a “divide by n” counter. The OUT pin of the counter goes to low for one input clock period. The time between the pulses of going low is dependent on the present count in the counter’s register. I mean the time of the logical 1 pulse.

For example, suppose to get an output frequency of 1,000 Hz ( Hertz ), the period would be 1 / 1,000 s = 1 ms ( millisecond ) or 1,000 µs ( microseconds ). If an input clock of 1 MHz ( Mega-Hertz ) were applied to the clock input of the counter #0, then the counter #0 would need to be programmed to 1000 µs. This could be done in decimal or in BCD. ( The period of an input clock of 1 MHz is 1 / 1,000,000 = 1 µs. )

The formula is: n=fi divided by fout.
fi = input clock frequency, fout = output frequency, n = value to be loaded.

My example: fi = 1 MHz = 1 x 106 Hz, fout = 1 kHz = 1 x 103 Hz.

n = 1 x 106 Hz / 1 x 103 Hz = 1 x 103 = 1,000. This is the decimal value to be loaded or the hexadecimal value $03E8. The following program example uses the decimal load count.

B000 3E35	LD	A,$35     ; load control word
			          ; for counter 0 mode 2 
B002 3207E0	LD	($E007),A ; into port $E007
                                  ; for BCD count 
B005 2104E0	LD	HL,$E004  ; address to the port
                                  ; of counter 0 
B008 3E00	LD	A,$00
B00A 77		LD	(HL),A	  ; load least significant
                                  ; byte of 1000 first 
B00B 3E10	LD	A,$10 
B00D 77		LD	(HL),A	  ; load most significant
                                  ; byte of 1000 last 
B00E 3E01	LD	A,1 
B010 3208E0	LD	($E008),A ; start counter 0 is only
                                  ; necessary for the MZ-700.
                                  ; Not necessary for
                                  ; counter #1 and #2 
; 
; The counter is now initialized and the output frequency
; will be 1000 Hz if the input frequency is 1 MHz.

If the count is loaded between output pulses, the present period will not be affected. A new period will occur during the next count sequence.

Mode 3 Square Wave GeneratorMode 3 is similar to the mode 2 except that the output will be high for half the period and low for half. If the count is odd, the output will be high for ( n + 1 ) / 2 and low for ( n – 1 ) / 2 counts.

For example, I’ll setup counter #0 for a square wave frequency of 10 kHz ( kilo-Hertz ), assuming the input frequency is 1 MHz.

Please refer to the formula described at mode 2.
1 x 106 / 10 x 103 = 100. This is the decimal value to be loaded or the hexadecimal value $0064. The following program example uses the binary load count.

B000 3E35	LD	A,$36	  ; load control word
			          ; for counter 0 mode 3
B002 3207E0	LD	($E007),A ; into port $E007
                                  ; for binary count 
B005 2104E0	LD	HL,$E004  ; address to the port
                          ; of counter 0 
B008 3E00	LD	A,$64	  ; equals to
                                  ; 100 microseconds
                                  ; for 10,000 Hz
B00A 77		LD	(HL),A	  ; load least significant
                                  ; byte of $0064 first 
B00B 3E10	LD	A,$00 
B00D 77		LD	(HL),A	  ; load most significant
                                  ; nyte of $0064 last 
B00E 3E01	LD	A,1 
B010 3208E0	LD	($E008),A ; start counter 0 is only
				  ; necessary for the MZ-700.
                  ; Not necessary for counter
                                  ; #1 and #2 
; 
; The counter is now initialized and the output frequency 
; will be 10 kHz if the input frequency is 1 MHz.
Mode 4 Software Triggered StrobeIn this mode the programmer can set up the counter to give an output timeout starting when the register is loaded. On the terminal count, when the counter equals to 0, the output will go to a logical 0 for one clock period and then returns to a logical 1. First the mode is set, the output will be a logical 1.
Mode 5 Hardware Triggered StrobeIn this mode the rising edge of the trigger input will start the counting of the counter. The output goes low for one clock at the terminal count. The counter is retriggerable, thus meaning that if the trigger input is taken low and then high during a count sequence, the sequence will start over.

When the external trigger input goes to a logical 1, the timer will start to time out. If the external trigger occurs again, prior to the time completing a full timeout, the timer will retrigger.

Go to page “Memory mapped I/O” to download the complex datasheet of the 8253.